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Korean J Pediatr 2011 July;54(7) :298-303.
Clinical characteristics and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in children less than two years of age
Ji Hyun Yoon (Yoon JH)1, Cheong Soo Park (Park CS)1, Ji Young Seo (Seo JY)1, Yun Sun Choi (Choi YS)2, Young Min Ahn (Ahn YM)1
1Departments of Pediatrics, General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Departments of Radiology, General Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Ji Young Seo ,Tel: +82-2-970-8220, Fax: +82-2-976-5441, Email:
Copyright © 2011 by The Korean Pediatric Society
Purpose : To evaluate the clinical characteristics of vitamin D deficiency and its association with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Methods : A total of 171 children aged less than two years underwent 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 tests between January 2007 and July 2009. The study was classified into two groups: normal and vitamin D insufficiency, by their vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels. Results : In total, 120 children were in the normal group (mean age, body weight and heights 12.57.0, 9.30.9 kg and 76.81.1 cm), and 51 children in the vitamin D insufficiency group (9.95.4 months, 9.00.9 kg and 75.10.9 cm). Vitamin D insufficiency was most commonly diagnosed in the spring (44%). The proportion of complete breast-feeding was higher in the insufficiency (92%), and 25.5% of the children in the deficient group also experienced IDA compared that 12% of normal group. Ten children in the insufficiency group experienced bony changes. Six children received calcitriol medication in the normal group, in whom the mean vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 level increased from 39.614.6 ng/mL (pre-medication) to 41.817.2 ng/mL (post-medication), and 13 in the insufficiency group, in whom the mean vitamin 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increased from 20.77.0 ng/ mL to a mean post-treatment level of 43.723.8 ng/mL. Conclusion : This study demonstrated that approximately 30% of children aged 2 years experienced vitamin D insufficiency associated with subclinical rickets. Many children also experienced concurrent IDA. Guidelines for vitamin D supplement in such children must therefore be established.
Keywords: Vitamin D deficiency | insufficiency | Child | Rickets | Anemia | Iron
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