Advanced Search
Korean J Pediatr 2012 December;55(12) :449-454.
Published online 2012 October 25.        doi:
Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development
Yoo Rha Hong (Hong YR), Jae Sun Park (Park JS)
Department of Pediatrics, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea
Corresponding Author: Jae Sun Park ,Tel: +82-51-990-6230, Fax: +82-51-990-3005, Email:
Copyright © 2012 by The Korean Pediatric Society
The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, selfreliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of childrens temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.
Keywords: Attachment | Parenting | Temperament | Development | Child
0. Handbook of child psychology; vol. 3)
0. Handbook of child psychology; vol. 3)
1. Bowlby J. Attachment and loss. Vol 1, Attachment. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis; 1969. pp. 1-40
2. Ainsworth MD, Blehar MC, Waters E, Wall S. Patterns of attachment: a psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1978. pp. 116-136.
3. Main M, Solomon J. Procedures for identifying infants as disorganized/disoriented during the Ainsworth Strange Situation. In: Greenberg MT, Cicchetti D, Cummings EMAttachment in the preschool years: theory, research and intervention. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1990. pp. 121-160.
4. Bowlby J. The nature of the child's tie to his mother. Int J Psychoanal 1958;39:350–373.
5. Harlow HF, Zimmermann RR. Affectional responses in the infant monkey; orphaned baby monkeys develop a strong and persistent attachment to inanimate surrogate mothers. Science 1959;130:421–432.
6. Sears W, Sears M. The attachment parenting book: a commonsense guide to understanding and nurturing your baby. Boston: Little Brown and Company; 2001. pp. 1-19.
7. Warren SL, Huston L, Egeland B, Sroufe LA. Child and adolescent anxiety disorders and early attachment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36:637–644.
8. van IJzendoorn MH. Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment: a meta-analysis on the predictive validity of the Adult Attachment Interview. Psychol Bull 1995;117:387–403.
9. Bartholomew K, Horowitz LM. Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model. J Pers Soc Psychol 1991;61:226–244.
10. Sroufe LA. Attachment and development: a prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attach Hum Dev 2005;7:349–367.
11. Fonagy P, Leigh T, Steele M, Steele H, Kennedy R, Mattoon G, et al. The relation of attachment status, psychiatric classification, and response to psychotherapy. J Consult Clin Psychol 1996;64:22–31.
12. Ma K. Attachment theory in adult psychiatry. Part 1: Conceptualisations, measurement and clinical research findings. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2006;12:440–449.
13. Jang MJ. Intergeneration transmission of attachment: mother's internal working model of relationships and infant attachment pattern [dissertation]. Seoul: Kyung Hee University; 1998. pp. 1-138.
14. Jung HS. The relationships among maternal attachment, caring behavior and children's attachment [dissertation]. Seoul: Sookmyung Women's University; 2000. pp. 1-73.
15. Yoo HI, Kim BN, Shin MS, Cho SC, Hong KE. Parental attachment and its impact on the development of psychiatric manifestations in school-aged children. Psychopathology 2006;39:165–174.
16. Munafo MR, Yalcin B, Willis-Owen SA, Flint J. Association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and approach-related personality traits: meta-analysis and new data. Biol Psychiatry 2008;63:197–206.
17. Thomas A, Chess S. An approach to the study of sources of individual differences in child behavior. J Clin Exp Psychopathol 1957;18:347–357.
18. Thomas A, Chess S. Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel; 1977. pp. 1-270.
19. Rothbart MK, Bates JE. Temperament. In: Damon W, Lerner NSocial, emotional, and personality development. 6th ed. New York: Wiley; 2006. pp. 99-166.
20. Kagan J, Fox NA. Biology, culture, and temperamental biases. In: Damon W, Lerner NSocial, emotional, and personality development. 6th ed. New York: Wiley; 2006. pp. 167-255.
21. Baumrind D. Current patterns of parental authority. Dev Psychol 1971;4(1 Pt 2):1–103.
22. Baumrind D. Rearing competent children. In: Damon WChild development today and tomorrow. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1989. pp. 349-378.
23. Seifer R, Schiller M. The role of parenting sensitivity, infant temperament, and dyadic interaction in attachment theory and assessment. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 1995;60:146–174.
24. Goossens FA, van IJzendoorn MH. Quality of infants' attachments to professional caregivers: relation to infant-parent attachment and day-care characteristics. Child Dev 1990;61:832–837.
25. Fonagy P, Steele M, Steele H, Moran GS, Higgitt AC. The capacity for understanding mental states: the reflective self in parent and child and its significance for security of attachment. Infant Ment Health J 1991;12:201–218.
PDF Links  PDF Links
Full text via DOI  Full text via DOI
  via Pubmed
Full text via PMC  Full text via PMC
via Pubreader  via PubReader
Download Citation  Download Citation
Supplementary Material  Supplementary Material
Register for e-submission
Register here to access the e-submission system of Korean J Pediatr for authors and reviewers.
Manuscript Submission
To submit a manuscript, please visit the Korean J Pediatr e-submission management system at, read the Instructions for Authors, and log into the Korean J Pediatr e-submission system. For assistance with manuscript submission, please contact:
Free archive
Anyone may access any past or current articles without logging in.
Korean Pediatric Society Office
#1606, Seocho World Officetel, 19 Seoun-ro, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-070, Korea
TEL : +82-2-3473-7305    FAX : +82-2-3473-7307   E-mail:
BrowseCurrent IssueFor Authors and ReviewersAbout
Copyright© The Korean Pediatric Society. All right reserved.